Exploring Personality Development Theory: Compelling and Inspiring Opinion Perspectives

By : Dewik Kusumawati, Ganesha University of Education, Singaraja


Personality development is a different process that every person goes through throughout his life. A number of theories have been developed within the field of psychology to explain and understand how a person’s nature, behavior, and identity develop from childhood to adulthood.

If we search for theories of personality development, we will not only discover the basic principles that make up conventional perspectives, but we will also find new perspectives interesting. Each theory serves as part of a larger puzzle of how humans came to be.

Each perspective offers a different way of understanding the personality journey, ranging from Freud’s basic concepts of the id, ego, and superego to neurobiological theories that investigate the physical properties of personality. While Piaget emphasized children’s cognition as the basis of development, Erikson incorporated a social dimension into the conversation. These theories continue to evolve and vary over time, resulting in ever richer stories about who we are.

This article invites readers to consider, investigate, and gain a new understanding of the ever-changing essence of humanity through these perspectives.


Theories of personality development have been the subject of extensive research and debate in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education because personality development is a complex and fascinating process involving interactions between genetic, environmental, and individual experience factors. In this article, we will examine various interesting and inspiring viewpoints on personality development theory.

The theory of psychoanalysis developed by Sigmund Freud is one of the most famous theories of personality development. According to Freud, personality consists of three main structures: id, ego, and superego. The id indicates basic instincts and desires, the ego serves as a regulator and mediator, and the superego indicates internalized values and moral rules. Freud’s concepts of the unconscious and internal conflict continue to influence our understanding of personality development, although his theory is controversial and widely criticized. Freud believed that personality is formed and settled at the age of five and that it is difficult to change after that age. Many people agree that childhood is an important period in the formation of personality, but Freud also believed that personality continues to develop after childhood and possibly throughout life. Sigmund Freud gave us an understanding of our subconscious world. The gloom that comes from our darkest fears and strife, forces that influence conscious thinking and thinking. Psychologists found evidence supporting Freud’s theory that memory and thought are repressed into the unconscious, and repression functions at the unconscious level. New study shows that the unconscious is a force which is significant, perhaps larger than Freud himself considered. However, contemporary images of thought processes are unconscious and more rational than emotional.

Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory of developmental ecology is another interesting perspective. Bronfenbrenner says that various interacting systems influence personality development, ranging from microsystems (an individual’s immediate environment) to macrosystems (broader social and cultural contexts). His theory emphasizes the importance of understanding the influence of complex and changing environments on personality development.

Carl R. Rogers Personality Theory: Rogers states that individuals with a strong and positive self-concept will have a different view of the world compared to people with a weak self-concept. Rogers’ humanistic personality theory emphasizes concepts such as the self, phenomenal field, and organism, as well as their implications for guidance and counseling in college. Contrary to the perspective of behaviorism, Rogers saw humans as a source of external power. Rogers’ theory of the human being comes from his experiences with people suffering from psychiatric disorders. However, Rogers’ basic view of human nature was positive and optimistic, far from Freud’s, who regarded humans as beings driven by destructive impulses. Rogers considered behavior as a response to an individual’s perception of external stimuli.

Erik H. Erikson’s Theory of Personality Development: Erikson presents a theory of personality development that covers the various stages of life, as well as a view of the task of development according to the Islamic view.

Philosophy in Personality Theory: A philosophical view of personality theory can also provide a deep understanding. For example, Aristotle suggested that a person’s personality is determined by habits or habitus.


We’ve traveled through various personality development theories and opinion perspectives, and we’ve traced paths that involve human complexity and uniqueness. From Freud’s theories to philosophies within personality theory, every theory makes a valuable contribution to putting together the complex puzzle of what makes us up.

In addition, the perspective of opinion has added color and nuance, providing constructive criticism and positive ideas that have enriched our view of humans as evolving beings. We find the richness and diversity of human experience in diverse theories and opinions.


Allport. G. W. 1961. Pattern and Growth in Personality. New York: Rinerhart and Winston.

Cloninger S. 2004, Theories of Personality: Understanding persons 4 th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Feist, J. dan Feist, G.J. 1998. Theories of Personality (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Hall, C.A. dan Lindzey, G. 1993. Teori-teori Holistik. Supratiknya, A. (ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.

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