Superego Optimization in Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalysis Theory for Character Education

By : Ni Kadek Wiwin Aprillian, Ganesha University of Education, Singaraja


Sigmund Freud through the theory of psychoanalysis is known as the inventor of psychoanalysis who is controversial with his findings. Sigmund Freud gave a different view of humans and their behavior. For Freud, humans are energized beings whose entire behavior is determined by the human unconscious zone. The unconscious is known as the subconscious. This part is like passions, instincts and everything that goes inside it and is hard to reach, such as traumatic memories or emotions. This psychoanalytic theory consists of the id, ego and superego. Freud stated that the unconscious is the source of motivation and drive for a person’s desires, whether they are simple, such as eating, sex, or creativity such as creating. The ego is the part of the personality that is in charge of assessing reality and dealing with the inner world to regulate the urges of the id so as not to violate the values of the superego. While the superego is the moral part of the human personality, because it is a filter, a sensor tool that determines something is good-bad, or wrong-right.

The link for the character education of students is to strengthen character education in the realm of the subconscious by optimizing the superego that is continuously improved in the learning process both in the family, school, and society. Things that are repeatedly done will form memories that are permanent in the subconscious. If the source of id continues to increase in the subconscious, the tendency to increase is negative things. However, if the integration of character education can be done holistically (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor).


If in Freud’s concept, the demands of instinct in id will be controlled if the rational logical function in ego, while in character education the demands of instinct in id are minimized by enlarging superego. The superego cannot wrap the id, what can be done is to minimize the space for the id to move so that the superego is bigger than the id. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society learned from parents and others. These values are acquired and developed at the age of 3 to 5 years. To maximize the superego, character education must begin before the age of 5 and there is a role of parents and society around children. The cultivation of moral values is started by parents and other people around the child. Parents instill moral values that will become ego-ideals so that they have an imaginary picture of careers, attitudes towards others, and attitudes as members of society. Parents can conduct a memorization learning process by instilling moral values in children. Individual development after adolescence is different when compared to childhood. With the strengthening of the superego, it can encourage the appearance of better character. Character education is a conscious and deliberate process, the process is carried out to enable individuals to apply virtuous behavior for themselves, and for others. In this process, parents play a role in carrying out a process that is carried out deliberately and consciously so that children are embedded with moral values, which in the end they are able to apply virtuous behavior for themselves and for others. One way to optimize the role of superego in character education is through spiritual discipline. Spiritual discipline that is closely related to moral values can form a strong superego.


In Freud’s concept, the function of the ego is to prevent instincts in the id. In general, the id and superego are something that is not visible, but drives what is visible on the surface. In the superego there are moral values that represent ideal values and provide boundaries of good and bad. These moral values are acquired from parents and other people when they are 3 to 5 years old. By having good moral values, individuals have the value to punish the ego and the image of the ideal individual. Parents need to instill these moral values repeatedly so that they are embedded in memory, then influence the values held. With the strengthening of the superego, it can encourage the emergence of better character.


Syawal, H., & Helaluddin, H. (2018). Psikoanalisis Sigmund Freud Dan Implikasinya Dalam Pendidikan. Banten. Uin Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin.

Wijaya, H., & Darmawan, I. (2019). Optimalisasi superego dalam teori psikoanalisis sigmund freud untuk pendidikan karakter.

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