The Peak Point of the Unconscious Mind Psychoanalysis in the Formation of Human Personality

By : Nabila Sri handayani, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha (Bimbingan & Konseling)

In determining a person’s personality, there are several theories that are used and become the basis for determining the structure of a person’s personality. Everyone in certain aspects is like everyone else, like some others, and not like everyone else. This condition has led to the development of various approaches in personality theory. Personality theories differ from each other in terms of what concerns human nature. Each personality theory shows its own expert opinion in describing the factors that make up a person’s personality. One of the theories of an individual’s personality is the theory of psychoanalysis. The theory of psychoanalysis put forward by Sigmund Freud states that every human being has thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that we are not aware of. So in every individual human being must have a subconscious. Psychoanalysis believes that all behavior performed by every human being is influenced by the subconscious. Psychoanalysis is one of the oldest sciences in comprehensive and influential psychology about personality. According to Sigmund Freud, personality is the integration that occurs between the id (biological drive), ego (judgment) and superego (social / environmental norms). This theory focuses on the unconscious processes that influence individual behavior. Initially, according to Freud, the structure of personality has three levels of consciousness, namely Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscious

An individual’s behavior or personality is strongly influenced by the subconscious mind. The subconscious mind is a thought that we are not aware of and know, but affects a large part of our psychological state. The subconscious mind usually comes from a person’s buried past or childhood experiences. Of the three personality structures (conscious, preconscious, unconscious) Sigmund Freud developed three structural models that make up the personality of an individual, namely the  Id (Pleasure Principle), Super ego (Moral Principle), and Ego (Reality principle).  IdIs the original personality system, in which when a human being is born he only has an Id, since it is the main source of psychic energy and the place where instincts arise. This id gives rise to the desire to satisfy the pleasure of the individual without regard to the rules or boundaries between what is good and what is right. This id is in the human subconscious. The Super Egois the person who holds justice or as a filter for both personality systems, so as to know right-wrong, good-bad, can-no and so on. This super ego is tasked with aligning itself with the rules, norms, and boundaries that exist in society. Organize the individual to be more in control. This super ego sits between the subconscious and the human consciousness. The egois the part of the personality that functions as an executor, where the system works in the outside world to assess reality and relates to the inner world to regulate id impulses so as not to violate values. This ego will come face to face with the outside world. This ego exists in the conscious mind of man. These three personality structures are likened to an iceberg where the lowest and largest parts that touch the surface of the sea are the unconscious mind, then the uppermost part is the conscious mind, and in the middle the middle it is the preconscious mind.

As an example of the mechanism of these three personality structures of psychoanalysis, when humans feel upset about something, the role of the Id here is to encourage them to vent their frustrations in various ways (hit people or killing) but there is a super ego that will hold back and make them realize that this is the wrong thing to do. When the Id and super ego do not go hand in hand, the role of the Ego is necessary to mediate. The ego will make people make decisions that they would do in the real world. This psychoanalytic paradigm was followed by several famous psychologists, including Carl G. Jung and Alfred Alder. Carl Jung applied psychoanalysis in observing the types of human personality. According to him, there are two types of human personality, namely introverts and extroverts.


One of the Personality Theories that is very influential on the formation of human personality is the Theory of Psychoanalysis. Because in the formation of the personality of each individual, it must begin with the innate subconscious, between the subconscious and conscious, and the conscious. Human personality will be processed through these three things, namely the Id, Super ego, and Ego. The id is the desire or desire that has existed in humans since they were born into the world regardless of good or bad norms, the super ego that will think and restrain the actions we will do that are good or bad, and also the last is the ego, which is the mediator between the Id and the Super ego in the individual. These three components are interrelated in individuals and cannot be separated. The process of these three components in humans will lead to an action or behavior that will shape the personality of an individual


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Ja’far, S. (2015). The structure of human personality: perspectives on psychology, philosophy. Psympathic: Scientific Journal of Psychology,  2(2).

Fatwikiningsih, N. (2020). Psychological Theory of Human Personality. Andy Publishers.

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